Tag Archive for Tag: penalties

Tag: penalties Bayesian networks for unbiased assessment of referee bias in football

Introduction and methodology The notion that football referees are biased towards certain teams or in certain contexts is widely accepted by football pundits and supporters. In fact, whether or not such bias exists is an area of increasing interest that attracts the attention of researchers from the domains of sport science, psychology, statistics and computer science. Irrespective of the true underlying causes, there is no doubt that ‘playing at home’ has a significant impact on a team’s success. Referees themselves are believed to contribute to home advantage by favouring home teams on the basis of penalty kicks, free kicks, yellow/red cards and/or extra time (Nevill et al., 1996; 1999; 2002; Sutter & Kocher, 2004; Boyko et al., 2007; Downward & Jones, 2007; Dawson et al., 2007; Dohmen, 2008; Buraimo et al., 2010; Goumas, 2012). However, these believed biases could be explained by team performance. The increased number of fouls, yellow

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Tag: penalties They think it’s all over: National identity, scoring in the last minute, and penalty shootouts

Football is a simple game; 22 men chase a ball for 90 minutes and at the end, the Germans win.” Gary Lineker, BBC Sport presenter and former England captain “When the Germans play well they become world champion; if they play poor they reach the final.” Michel Platini, President of UEFA and former France captain Within the first eight minutes of the 1954 world cup final, Hungary had raced to a two goal lead. No one believed that West-Germany – or anyone – could beat Hungary. The previous year the “Mighty Magyars” became the first team to beat England at Wembley. But this did not stop Germany from staking their first claim to a reputation for being a team with a winning mentality – and a team that scores late goals. Helmut Rahn waited until six minutes before the end of the game to score the winner. The final whistle

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